How many percent of the sun-radiation reaches a horizontal surface at the given geographical position, because the sun is not simply perpendicular over that and in addition be liable to the day-time- and year-time-course? The geographical position in the example belongs to Mainflingen-Offenbach. The calculation is difficult, because of the integration over the formula below, from 0 to 365 x 24 hours.

Also in spherical coordinates this calculation is difficult. Therefore the SIMPSON formula is recommended here. For arbitrary coordinates on the earth's surface this iteration is suitable here.

effective sun radiation, horizontally surface | |
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How many percent of the sun-radiation reaches a inclined surface pointing to north respectively south at the given geographical position, because the sun is not simply perpendicular over that and in addition be liable to the day-time- and year-time-course? The geographical position in the example belongs to Mainflingen-Offenbach. The calculation is difficult, because of the integration over the formula below, from 0 to 365 x 24 hours.

This calculation is difficult. Therefore the SIMPSON formula is recommended here. For coordinates >= 39 degrees on the earth's surface this iteration is suitable here.

effective sun radiation, inclined surface | |
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The given latitude and longitude in this example belongs to the church in the city of Dorsten/NRW/Germany and New York.

calculate distance on earth | |
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For example a calculation of azimuth and elevation from the church in the city of Dorsten to the ASTRA-satellite.

/geostationary satellite | |
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The result of the Maxwell-Equitations for electromagnetic waves in materials with finit electrical conductorship sais: By a frequency of
1.000 MHz and the assumption that the electrical conductorship of a skull is 0.0179 / (Ohm*cm), the penetration of the electromagnetic waves is
11.895 mm into the human body. Then the field decreases to 36.79 %. Above 1200 MHz resonance phenomena arise and this calculation is not valid.

(Calculation from K: SIMONYI, Theoretische Elektrotechnik, Technical University Budapest)

Conductivity of different human organs [here]

Penetration of electromagnetic waves | |
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The result is also for dipols with double lenght, smaller then λ/2, if you double it. It has to be l>>d.

Antenna-impedance by MEINKE | |
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Overview resistance and reactance over l/λ: | |

vert. antenna | dipol-antenna |

The result is for stretched width antennas in free space, medium or minimum 2 x λ over ground with sinusoidal current and l>>d. For the resonances frequency and wire diameter have to be specified.
Lenghts are related to free space. The resonance-calculation delivers the lenght for free space. To get the geometric lenght in medium you have to watch lenght in medium.
It is beta-software. For experts I have transfered the 2kl in the auxilliary calculation. For arguments greater than 36 the calculation of Si(x) and Ci(x) is not exact. Continuing calculations [here].

See also: Antenna Theory - Analysis and Design, BALANIS, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

BALANIS-impedance of antenna / dipol | |
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antenna | integral-sine and -cosine |

trend of impedance over l/λ, λ=1 m, d=1 mm, vacuum: | |

For horizontal and vertical dipols BALANIS calculation. The input impedances will be inserted by the programs above, You can use befor this calculation.

Also see: BALANIS, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

Influence of ideal ground for dipol impedance BALANIS | |
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horiz. dipol over ground | vert. dipol over ground |

Overview impedance factor: | |

For the resonances frequency and wire diameter have to be specified. Lenghts are related to free space. The resonance-calculation delivers the lenght for free space. To get the geometric lenght in medium you have to watch
lenght in medium. It is beta-software. For experts I have transfered the 2kl in the auxilliary calculation. For arguments greater than 36 the calculation of Si(x) and Ci(x) is not exact.
Continuing calculations [here].

See also: Antenna Theory - Analysis and Design, BALANIS, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

BALANIS-impedance of antenna / vertical | |
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antenna | integral-sine and -cosine |

trend of impedance over l/λ, λ=1 m, d=1 mm, vacuum: | |

transform serial connection to parallel connection |
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For transforming up L is connected to the source and C parallel to load. For transforming down C is parallel to source and L is connected to load. More information [here]

transforming up with Boucherot-circui, Rl > Rg | transforming down with Boucherot-circuit, Rl < Rg | |
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There are different solutions for calculating a PI-filter. Here one with 2 Boucherot-circuits. First we transformate to a low help resistance, then we transformate to the destination resistance. By changing the help resistance it is possible to adjust Ca, Cb or L. Maybe the automatic search works for a chosen Ca, Cb or L. First calculate the Pi-filter manually, then choose a value close to the value shown. Automatic search is a beta program version. More information [here]

Collins-filter calculator | |
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There are different solutions for calculating a PI-filter. Here the mathematically exact solution with the Q factor. Try a start value for Q between 5...20. Automatic search for Ca, Cb and L is a beta program version. More information [here]

Collins-filter calculator | |
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The both functions are calculated here in Javascript by serial development. You see the error for arguments greater than 36.

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