How many percent of the sun-radiation reaches a horizontal plane at the given geographical position, because the sun is not simply perpendicular over that and in addition be liable to the day-time- and year-time-course? The geographical position in the example belongs to Mainflingen-Offenbach. The calculation is difficult, because of the integration over the formula below, from 0 to 365 x 24 hours.

effective sun radiation | |
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The given latitude and longitude in this example belongs to the church in the city of Dorsten/NRW/Germany and New York.

calculate distance on earth | |
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For example a calculation of azimuth and elevation from the church in the city of Dorsten to the ASTRA-satellite.

/geostationary satellite | |
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The result of the Maxwell-Equitations for electromagnetic waves in materials with finit electrical conductorship sais: By a frequency of 1.000 MHz and the assumption that the electrical conductorship is 0.195 / (Ohm*cm), the penetration of the electromagnetic waves is 3.6042 mm into the human body. Then the field decreases to 36.79 %. (Calculation from K: SIMONYI, Theoretische Elektrotechnik, Technical University Budapest)

Penetration of electromagnetic waves | |
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The result is also for dipols with double lenght, smaller then λ/2, if you double it. It has to be l>>d.

Antenna-impedance by MEINKE | |
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Overview resistance and reactance over l/λ: | |

vert. antenna | dipol-antenna |

The result is for stretched width antennas in free space, medium or minimum 2 x λ over ground with sinusoidal current and l>>d. For the resonances frequency and wire diameter have to be specified.
Lenghts are related to free space. The resonance-calculation delivers the lenght for free space. To get the geometric lenght in medium you have to watch lenght in medium.
It is beta-software. For experts I have transfered the 2kl in the auxilliary calculation. For arguments greater than 36 the calculation of Si(x) and Ci(x) is not exact. Continuing calculations [here].

See also: Antenna Theory - Analysis and Design, BALANIS, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

BALANIS-impedance of antenna / dipol | |
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antenna | integral-sine and -cosine |

trend of impedance over l/λ, d=1 mm, vacuum: | |

For horizontal and vertical dipols BALANIS calculation. The input impedances will be inserted by the programs above, You can use befor this calculation.

Also see: BALANIS, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

Influence of ideal ground for dipol impedance BALANIS | |
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horiz. dipol over ground | vert. dipol over ground |

Overview impedance factor: | |

For the resonances frequency and wire diameter have to be specified. Lenghts are related to free space. The resonance-calculation delivers the lenght for free space. To get the geometric lenght in medium you have to watch
lenght in medium. It is beta-software. For experts I have transfered the 2kl in the auxilliary calculation. For arguments greater than 36 the calculation of Si(x) and Ci(x) is not exact.
Continuing calculations [here].

See also: Antenna Theory - Analysis and Design, BALANIS, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ

BALANIS-impedance of antenna / vertical | |
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antenna | integral-sine and -cosine |

trend of impedance over l/λ, d=1 mm, vacuum: | |

transform serial connection to parallel connection |
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For transforming up L is connected to the source and C parallel to load. For transforming down C is parallel to source and L is connected to load. More information [here]

transforming up with Boucherot-circui, Rl > Rg | transforming down with Boucherot-circuit, Rl < Rg | |
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There are different solutions for calculating a PI-filter. Here one with 2 Boucherot-circuits. First we transformate to a low help resistance, then we transformate to the destination resistance. By changing the help resistance it is possible to adjust Ca, Cb or L. Maybe the automatic search works for a chosen Ca, Cb or L. First calculate the Pi-filter manually, then choose a value close to the value shown. Automatic search is a beta program version. More information [here]

Collins-filter calculator | |
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There are different solutions for calculating a PI-filter. Here the mathematically exact solution with the Q factor. Try a start value for Q between 5...20. Automatic search for Ca, Cb and L is a beta program version. More information [here]

Collins-filter calculator | |
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The both functions are calculated here in Javascript by serial development. You see the error for arguments greater than 36.

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